Interpretation; a Means of Demagogy in Baha'ism

Amir Hussein Mantiqi*


Apocryphal religions resort to every possible argument in order to establish their legitimacy and be able to survive. With regard to its nature, Baha'ism is not an exception, so it resorts to providing "exoteric commentary". The present paper tries to nullify this claim and refute such claims, using a theoretical approach and library method. So, the term "exoteric commentary is defined, its relationship with "literal meaning", and "modification" reviewed and the term used in the Quran, investigated. The paper cites some examples from Baha'i exoteric commentaries.

Key words: Bab, Baha, interpretation, illiterate, divinely inspired knowledge, resurrection, paradise, hell.


Four-Fold Dissolutions and Resurrections in
Hindu Puranas and Islamic Mysticism

Mohammad Rasul Imani*


Hindu puranas depict an end for the different periods of time called "Pralaya, i.e. Dissolution". In addition to this Dissolution (Mahapralaya, i.e. Great Dissolution"), other kinds of dissolutions can be found in puranas which are, in some respects, called "Pralaya". This definition of the end of the world can also be found in Islamic tradition, especially in the field of mysticism. While accepting the resurrection defined by the Glorious Quran, mystical texts explain other instances of resurrection based on realities and wisdoms hidden in it. The kinds of resurrections, when adding legal resurrection mount to four. Using an analytical approach and introducing four kinds of dissolutions in Purana and mystical traditions, the present paper makes a contrastive study of these doctrines and explores the similarities and differences and points out to their merits in the two religious traditions.



Intellectual-Spiritual Leadership of "Tzaddik" in Hasidic Thought

Tahereh Tavakkoli*, Ruqayyeh Soulat**


Three main mystical trends can be found in the history of Judaism and they are in the chronological order that follows: Merkibah (Merkavah), Kibbalah, and Hasidic school. Hasidic mystical trend was established by Israel Baal Shem Tov, known as "Besht" in eighteenth century. The early centers of Hasidicism were in Ukraine and southern Poland. Later, this movement expanded all over Eastern Europe. The doctrines of Hasidism were generalized form of Kabbalah and put emphasis on the importance of interior worship of God instead of observing the exterior aspects of Jewish Shari'ah. One of achievements of early Hasidism was the establishment of charismatic leadership which developed through a spiritual and holy power like Tzaddik in the Hasidic society of the Jews. In this mystical school, every group has its own "Rabbi" called "Tzaddik" who is the mediator between God and his servants. In the eighteenth century the theory of Tzaddik defined Judaism, by giving the religious leader a new concept, as being charismatic and mystical. According to this theory, every generation has pure and righteous individuals who are the mediators between the earth and heaven and by means of God's favour and mediators’ particular mystical mood, and divine kindness and mercy are bestowed upon people.

Key words: Hasidic school, Tzaddik, sanctity, Devekut, Tiqqun, Tzimtzum.


Mysticism and Monasticism in Christianity

'Abbas Rasulzadeh*


Mysticism has been proposed to understand the realities of religions versus the exterior aspects of religions and rational thinking, and it has significant influence on the spiritual life of those who follow them. The subject matter of mysticism is existence, its end is attachment to infinite Being and its language is symbolic. In Christianity, the divinity of Jesus is justified on the grounds of the concept of union and incarnation, and Augustine lends a philosophical air to Christian mysticism. Mysticism has been mixed with monasticism in the history of the Church. In the beginning, Christianity was a kind of Jewish mysticism and in the course of history it was influenced by Neo-platonic philosophy and Hermetic and Gnostic mysticism. During the history of Christianity, monastic systems have always emphasized on practical mysticism and have been subject to some deviations.

Key words: mysticism, monasticism


Logos, a Myth Leading to Truth

Jawad Akbari Motlaq*


One of the intellectual matters of concern to man is the question of God's deputies on the earth, i.e. the divine prophets who are mediators between God and men. On the other hand, it is necessary to study the role of revelation in three important Abrahamic religions because it is these mediators who deliver to man divine message through revelation and the (Logos) word is the basic element of revelation. No doubt, Mosaic and Mohammadan Shari‘ahs (Laws) are similar to one another in many respects. Although in the second millennium, i.e., after Moses (peace be upon him) and before the Holy Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), a divine religion was revealed which is, in principle, similar to the two religious, Judaism and Islam, and it emphasizes on monotheism, but the idea of the Incarnation (of God in Jesus) (peace be upon him) was included in monotheism. In Christianity, the revealed divine word or Mosaic wisdom and Mohammadan light and reason, which was later introduced to Islam, has suddenly changed into the Incarnation. Given this, the present paper discusses and comments on Mosaic wisdom, contingent Self-disclosure of divine mediation in Islam and necessary mediation as its counterpart in Christianity, because there is an explanation of this phenomenon in ancient Greece Mosaic "wisdom", Chiristian "Incarnation", and Mohammadan "mediation of bounteousness" which seeks to underline the relationship between man and creator.

Key words: logos, arche, myth, embodiment, first effusion, theology of speech, Mohammadan reality.



Jewish Theological Trends Influenced by Islamic Trends in the Medieval Age

Seyyed Lotfollah Jalali*


In the medieval age Jewish philosophical theology had outstanding intellectual trends to which no due attention has been paid thus far. These trends were under the influence of Islamic intellectual trends. Using an analytical-theoretical approach, the present paper tries to explore these trends and evaluates the influence of Islamic intellectual trends on them through an analytical contrastive study. The research findings are: theological attitude is under the influence of Mu'tazilism; Neo-platonic attitude under the influence of Neo-platonic school prevalent among the Isma'ilis; Aristotelian attitude is prevalent among Muslim Peripatetic philosophers; literalistic (textualist) attitude is prevalent among different Islamic groups especially the Ash'arites; and the rational attitude of Karaism school is influenced by the school of Ahlal-Ra’I (those in favor of reasoning) in Iraq and the Mu'tazilis in some of fundamental thoughts and by traditionalists in some other thoughts. Most of the theologians of this period have synthetic attitudes, and so, an approach may be made up of theological and Aristotelian attitudes, theological and Neo-platonic attitudes, or theological and anti- Aristotelian attitudes.

Key words: Islam, Christianity, philosophical theology, medieval age, theology (Kalam), philosophy.


The Confrontation between the Sage Maula Hassan b. 'Abdul Rahim Maraghi and the Armenians of Maragheh

Heydar 'Eiwazi*


Muslim scholars have adopted five approaches in their discussions with the Christians: refutation, disputation, teaching and learning relation, fiqhi confrontation, and dialog or discussion. The present paper focuses on the fifth approach, that is, dialog or discussion and takes a probing look at the brief Persian version of Mujtahid Maraghi’s treatise, entitled "Jawab Kafi wa Bayan Shafi Leman Sabaqat Lahul Hosna". In its preface, he writes, "this treatise which was written at the request of the Armenians of Maragheh who wanted to know the true religion". Although we know nothing who the inquirers were and what their reaction to Maraghi's analysis was, this event is regarded unique in the history of the dialogs between Islam and Christianity. Maraghi's central point is "transition from monotheism to the necessity of the existence of a perfect man". He introduces Shiite school of thought as the true Muslim school due to its close attachment to the Imam of the Age (May God hasten his glad advent) as the perfect man and essence of the creation. Furthermore, he wrote another treatise in Arabic on Christianity entitled "Mishkat-al Hikmah wa Misbah-al Bayan" which, unlike the aforementioned treatise, is a more detailed one and the first approach, i.e. refutation is used here. However, the common property of these two treatises is that both of them cite the holy presence of Imam of the Age (May God hasten his glad advent) as the perfect man and the mediation of divine bounteousness.

Key words: Islam, Christianity, Armenians, Maragheh.

شماره مجله: 
شماره صفحه: