Textual Debates with the People of the Book and Disambiguation from the Religion; A Case Study: lubb al-khitab Treatise

Mohammad Valipour / Ph.D. Student in the History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Mashhad Azad Uni                m.valipoor.1346@gmail.com

Tahere Azimzade Tehrani / Associate Professor, History and Civilization of Islamic Nations Department, Mashhad Azad Uni

Zahra Alizade Birjandi / Associate Professor, History Department, Birjand Uni

Ardeshir Asadbighi / Assistant Professor, History and Civilization of Islamic Nations Department, Mashhad Azad Uni

Received: 2018/02/13 - Accepted: 2018/09/11



Muslim thinkers from the early Islamic centuries have been confronted with doubts and objections to the religion by the people of the book, which led to the compilation of various books by the scholars. From the early 19th century, due to colonialism and missionary activities, the textual disputes have steadily increased among Muslim scholars. The cognitive dimensions of these works and the formulation of epistemic propositions have given a special place to these works in the religious studies. Considering the significance of these works, this paper studies one of the major treatises in this field, called "lubb al-khitab", which deals with the issues of the book, by Mohammad Bagher Birjandi. Using a descriptive-analytical method, his paper seeks to study the arguments of the author of lubb al-khitab in disambiguation from religious beliefs. Findings show that, using the historical references, rational arguments and the Bible, the author of the mentioned work has revealed the contradictions and defended the religion.

Keywords: lubb al-khitab, the doubts of the People of the Book, good controversy, debates, Mohammad Bagher Birjandi.

A Comparative Study of the Animals' Semantic Role in the Holy Quran, the Gospel of Matthew and John with an Emphasise on "Significance" and "Relevance "

 Azade Sharifi Moghaddam / Associate Professor, Foreign Languages Department, Kerman Shahid Bahonar Uni                                                                                                                                     asharifi@uk.ac.ir

Fateme Zahra Nazari Robati / English Translator, Instructor, Rafsanjan Hazrat Narjes Uni

Received: 2018/01/08 - Accepted: 2018/06/13



One of the features of the Holy Bible is fluency and simplicity, which has made it easy to understand for the public, despite the deep and precise meaning. Common and accustomed vocabulary to human life, have been used simply for the sake of ethical and religious teachings in these texts, such as names associated with nature, plants and animals. Considering the abundant usage of animal names in the Holy Quran and the Gospel, this paper seeks to study and compare the names of this semantic domain in terms of frequency and type, semantic meaning, and relevance in these Books. Findings show that, there are some similarities and differences in this regard, which some similarities are the abundance of implications with a " referential" "generic" "constant" and "explicit" characteristics, and also the objective usage of animals in the verses of these three Books includes "the recognition of guidance", "the recognition of path" and "anthropology". The scope and diversity of the Quranic subjects can be mentioned among the differences in relation to the Gospel of Matthew and John.

Keywords: the Holy Quran, the Gospel, semantic meaning, relevance, animal names.

Different Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Myth and the Holy Quran's Interaction

Zahra Mohagheghian / Assistant Professor, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies


Received: 2018/04/15 - Accepted: 2018/09/05



Interdisciplinary studies of myths have been one of the interactions of the humanities in recent years, which have created various discourses in numerous sciences such as history, mythology, art, literature, linguistics and etc. Along with these discourses, the scholars of these sciences have simultaneously been able to present theories, methods as well as new definitions and strategies for studying myth. Recognition of these sciences and familiarity with their experts and their ideas has played a very important role in the development of the Quranic studies and has provided new strategies for researchers in the field of religion. Without any prejudice, this paper studies the various possible interdisciplinary studies between myth (in its general sense) and the Holy Qur'an, and then studies the types of interactions between these two domains from the viewpoint of the related sciences. Findings show that, at least four main branches of history, linguistics, literature, and theology can be counted as the most common discourses in this field that have grown and developed in contemporary times. Of course, each of these branches has its own subdivisions, which ultimately make interactive transitions in this area.

Keywords: mythological studies, mythological critique, mythology of the Quran.

An in-depth Analysis of the Dimensions and Scope of the Greek culture in the Period of Jewish Hellenism

 Seyyed Mohammad Hasan Saleh / PhD Student of Religions and Mysticism, IKI


Mohammad Husain Taheri Akrudi / Assistant Professor, Religions and Mysticism Department, IKI

Received: 2018/03/13 - Accepted: 2018/10/01



The historical period of Hellenism, which lasted for three centuries, was formed in Judaism with the domination of Macedonian Alexander over Palestine and other Middle Eastern lands in the fourth century BC. During this period, due to the cultural policy of the Greek rulers, the Greek culture and thoughts penetrated into the various layers of Jewish life and thought. Focusing on the Jewish sources, this paper studies the various dimensions of this influence. Findings show that, The Greek culture had three levels of social, cultural, and theological influences on the Jewish community. Changing the language and compilation of Sabinein's translation are the most important examples of this impact. However, due to the efforts of "Hasidism" and highlighting the "chosenness" doctrine, the Greek culture has declined and beaten around the bush.

Keywords: Hellenism, Greek culture, Sabinein's translation, Books of Wisdom, chosenness doctrine.

The Role of Art and the Status of the Artist in Augustine's City of God

Ali Razizadeh / Ph.D. in Wisdom of Religious Arts, Urd. Uni                 Razizadeh@gmail.com

Received: 2017/02/28 - Accepted: 2017/08/19



Augustine is the first Christian thinker that paid a special attention to art and beauty and developed a comprehensive system in this area, which later had a tremendous effect on the post-scholarly thinkers, especially in the middle Ages. The attitude of Augustine towards art and beauty, along with his complete loyalty to Christian teachings, which has fully crystallized in the God's City by dividing man into the inhabitants of heaven and earth, has created a question that, what is the status of the artist in the City of God. Using an analytical-documentary method and concerning Augustine's deep belief in the Christian doctrines, this paper studies his attitude towards beauty and tries to explain his point of view towards types of arts to know the status of the artist in the intellectual system of the City of God.

Keywords: Augustine, God's city, Beauty, Art, Artist.

A Reflections on the Pentecostal Missionary Social-Cultural Approaches

 Yaser Abuzadeh Guttabi / Ph.D. Student in Religions and Sufism                         y.a.g@chmail.ir

Seyyed Ali Hasani / Assistant Professor, IKI

Received: 2017/03/14 - Accepted: 2017/07/24



Emphasizing the the imminent return of Christ and focusing on missionary activities and maximum absorption, the Pentecostal movement came to the fore in the early twentieth century. But decades later, due to the non-fulfillment of their prediction, they focused on the global, social culture issues. Church building, localization of churches and their leadership, cultural orientationism are among their cultural approaches as helping poor, paying attention to youth and their leadership in churches, urban and street advertising along with taking part in public affairs are among the most important social approaches of Pentecostalism. Using data analysis method and focusing on the Pentecostal written sources, this paper seeks to introduce the Pentecostal missionary social-cultural approaches and their challenges and problems such as Church building, leadership among the Pentecost and ignoring the elite communities.

Keywords: the Pentecostal movement, church, missionary, localization, contextualization, cultural approaches, social approaches.

A Critical Inquiry into Kabbalah in Jewish Mysticism

Morteza Aqatehrani / Assistant Professor, IKI                                  m.aghatehrani@gmail.com

Received: 2017/07/19 - Accepted: 2017/11/24



Introducing and criticizing "mysticism", "Jews" and "Kabbalah", this paper analyzes Kabala in Jewish mysticism. Recognizing the "Jewish mysticism" with referring to the advent of Judaism and its evolution, and criticizing the Jewish mystical school, Kabbalah, is the purpose of this research. In this regard, it was expected that Judaism and the Book of Moses and his ideas would have been imbued with mysticism; however, ideologically the origin of this mysticism is the viewpoints of the Egyptian priests and witches before Moses, which led to the rejection of the Prophet Moses (P.B.U.H.). Using a descriptive-analytical and a desk- research method, this paper studies this issue.

Keywords: Kabbalah, Kabala, mysticism, Jew, Torah, Talmud, Zohar.