The Development and Evolution of Faith in the Light of Virtues from the Viewpoint of Allame Tabataba'i and Thomas Aquinas

Mohammad Sohrabian Parizi / Ph.D. student in Islamic Ethics, Islamic Maaref Uni    shiner_313@live.com

Seyyed Akbar Husani Ghal'e Bahman / Associate Professor, IKI.

Received: 2018/08/25 - Accepted: 2018/12/27



Faith as a disposition of the soul has potential to be strengthened and developed from the viewpoint of Shiite and Catholic school of thought. Virtues, due to their internal components, have coherent and integrated connection with faith, and thus, they play significant role in the development and sublimity of faith. Using an analytical-descriptive method, this paper seeks to study two issues from the viewpoint of Allameh Tabatabai and Thomas Aquinas, two influential intellectuals in Shiite and Catholic ethics; the first, on what basis the existence of stages in faith can be justified? The second, which types of virtues are more prominent, and has role in the development of faith? Findings show that, according to both views faith gets intensity and weakness due to its nature and components. Allameh Tabataba'i regards piety, composure and certainty as the faith's effective developer virtues, but Aquinas considers it the virtues of charity, religion and certainty.

Keywords: faith, development of faith, virtue, moral virtue, Allameh Tabataba'i, Aquinas.

A Critical Analysis of the Orientalist's Viewpoint about the Instructors of the Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H.)

Ali Asadi / Assistant Professor, Islamic Sciences and Culture Academy AliAsadiZanjani1110@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/07/05 - Accepted: 2017/12/21



The most important and famous and adopted theory that is commonly held by the Orientalists about the sources of the Qur'an is the theory of adaptation of Qur'an based on Jewish and Christian sources, especially the two Testaments. According to this point of view, which denies the revelatory nature of the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H.), his holiness has learned many Jewish and Christian teachings through some Jewish and Christian groups and presented in the form of the Qur'an. These individuals and groups are considered by the Orientalists as the Prophet's instructors. This paper seeks to analyze this view fairly comprehensive, and defends the revelatory nature of the Qur'an, by reviewing and criticizing the challenges of Orientalists' points of view. Considering the Qur'an as a human work is the first problem, which is based on a wrong prejudice of the Orientalists. The second and more important problem is their unscientific method in dealing with the historical data. Following their assumptions, the historical data have emphasized and analyzed selectively, fanatically and unilaterally by the Orientalists. But lacking of such reports about the training of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by others, non-continuing and limiting meetings of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the alleged instructors, giving glad tidings and confirming the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), the conversion of some of them to Islam, the inconsistency of this story with the moral character of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), the critical approaches of the Qur'an towards the People of the Book, interrupting, delaying and waiting for revelation, the challenge of the Qur'an or Tahaddi, emphasizing on the revelatory and supernaturally nature of the Qur'an and illiteracy of the Prophet are the other reasons that have been argued in the critique of Orientalist's theory.

Keywords: instructors of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), the Qur'an, Testaments, adapt, Orientalists, Waraka ibn Nawfal, Buhira the monk, Addas,
Suhayb al-Rumi.

An Analysis of the Christian Theology's Challenges in the Vatican II's Crisis Management

Reza Qazi / Ph.D. student of the Department of religions, IKI                     Rghaz@ymail.com

Received: 2016/12/10 - Accepted: 2017/05/21



The church organization has faced many crises in its long life. To overcome such crises, they had no choice but to make reforms in many theological issues in the Second Vatican Council. Discovering the components of the crisis this paper seeks to study the methods of the fathers of the churches in dealing with those crises. The main question is that, how the church could manage the religious-cultural crises caused by theological teachings? And to what extent they were successful? Answering these questions, the church adopted three phases of pre-crisis, during the crisis and post-crisis management. Censorship, banning some books, the Inquisition Court and eventually the torture and execution of the innovators with the charge of heresy were among the early steps. The Church actions during the crisis included the following, Neo-Thomism, New theology, scientific researches and formation of the Second Vatican Council. Post-crisis actions included, reforming the liturgy, the unity of Churches, confronting Communism, religious freedom and admitting Catholic Church's past mistakes.

Keywords: crisis, crisis management, Church, Catholic, the Second Vatican Council.

A Comparative Study of the Initial Origins of Piety
in Sufism and Taoism (with an Emphasis on the Ideas
of Fudayl ibn Iyad and Yang Zhu)

Qurban Elmi / Associate Professor, Tehran Uni

Husain Omidi / M.A. in Religions and Mysticism, Tehran Uni Hosseinomidi2015@yahoo.com

Mohammad Reza Khayat Mohammadi / M.A. in Religions and Mysticism, Tehran Uni

Received: 2017/12/16 - Accepted: 2018/04/28



Using descriptive-analytical method and concentrating on original sources, this paper compares the ideas of Fudayl ibn Iyad, the second century Islamic Sufi, and Yang Zhu, the earliest Taoists ascetic about piety. The primary similarities of Taoism and Sufism on piety have made it necessary to study this issue, which suggests the similarity of these two concepts with each other, since the Islamic Sufism began with asceticism as the of Taoism also began with piety. In sum, the ideas of Fudayl and Yang Zhu are somewhat similar, but despite the apparent similarities, Fudayl was an ascetic, mystic, devout, devoted and right seeker man, while Yang Zhu was a hermit, materialist and was inclined to get rid of the terrible suffering from himself, which lacks the transcendental values. Consequently, the concept of piety in Fudayl's ideas is superior to Yang Zhu's ones.

Keywords: piety in Sufism, piety, Taoism, Fudayl ibn Iyad, Yang Zhu.

A Comparative Study of the "Symbol of the Mystical Tree" in Kabbala and Sufism

Mohammad Reza Abedi / Assistant Professor, Persian Language and Literature, Tabriz Uni abedi@tabrizu.ac.ir

Husain Shahbazi / Ph.D. student of Persian Language and Literature, Tabriz Uni

Ahmad Farshbafian Niazmand / Assistant Professor, Persian Language and Literature, Tabriz Uni

Mohammad Mahdipoor / Professor, the Persian Language and Literature Department, Tabriz Uni

Received: 2018/02/10 - Accepted: 2018/07/03



Using comparative method, this paper seeks to illuminate the affects and effects of the tree of knowledge and the tree of existence in Sufi works and Kabbala Sefirot to show the similarities and differences of the symbol of tree in these two mystical schools. Explaining the evolution and development of this symbolic tree from a religious code to a mystical one and the share of these two schools in this evolution is the purpose of this paper. Concentrating on the idea of Tom Black, the Kabbalistic researcher, and structural similarities and detailed analysis it becomes clear that the structure of the iconic tree and its evolved and mystical form is the legacy of the Islamic Sufism, which adopted by Moses de Leon in  Zohar from Maqamat al-Qulub Shaikh Abu al-Hasan al-Nuri, and Shajarat al-kawn ibn Arabi. However, one cannot overlook the combined effect of Kabbala and Sufism on the fundamental and religious form of this symbol in Torah and Islamic sources. The heart plays a central role in the symbol of the mystical tree of Sufism and Kabbala. The seeker communicates with the other worlds through the heart and from microcosm enters the world of sublimity.

Keywords: the tree of Knowledge, the tree of life, Sefirot, the tree of existence, Kabbala, Sufism.

An Internal Critique of the Herzl Foundations With Respect to the Views of Ahad Ha'am

Nouri Sadat Shahanghian / Assistant Professor, Religions and Mysticism Department, al-Zahra Uni


Bahare Zamiri Jirsarai / M.A. in Religions and Mysticism, al-Zahra Uni

Received: 2017/10/23 - Accepted: 2018/03/08



Political Zionism, which was built on Theodor Herzl ideas, was followed by many internal and external criticisms from the beginning. Asher Ginsberg (Ahad Ha'am), the founder of the cultural Zionist, was among the critics among the Zionist movement. This paper studies the viewpoints and critics of Ahad Ha'am about the Political Zionism and the Herzl ideas. Concentrating on the Ahad Ha'am and Herzl works and using the immediate and intermediate sayings this paper has been written. Ahad Ha'am challenged Herzl's views about salvation of Jews through immigration to Palestine, creating an independent Jewish state, and gaining international support for the establishing a Jewish state to realize other goals of political Zionism, and emphasized on the cultural and spiritual revival of the nation and the preservation of their Jewish identity by considering the national values, which were completely ignored by Herzl.

Keywords: Zionism, Herzl, Ahad Ha'am, Jew, cultural, political.

Zoroastrianism, a Law-Based or a Law-Crossed

Seyyed Mohammad Hajati Shuraki / Ph.D. student in Religions and Mysticism, IKI       Hajati65@chmail.ir

Husain Naghavi / Assistant Professor, the Department of Religions, IKI

Received: 2018/04/10 - Accepted: 2018/09/10



Making rules and regulations in religions is the introduction to eternal perfection and prosperity. Achieving this destination, the All-Creator and All-knowing God should send His rules to the human being through the prophets. Gathas, an attributed Book to Zoroaster and the only heavenly Book of Zoroastrians, does not speak about law "Sharia"; But most of the juridical and legal issues are mentioned in the Avesta Vindhid and other Zoroastrian scriptures. Zoroastrian Sharia has changed in different periods, and as the Zoroastrian priests have said, this issue - changing and removing of some legal rules - is still ongoing. The reason of these ongoing changes is that, these rules and laws are man-made, not the revelation or the divine word. Explaining the Sharia and its relevant issues in Zoroastrianism, this paper analyzes the topic in details.

Keywords: Zoroastrianism, law, law-crossing, divine revelation, Vindhid.

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