Abstract

قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 
1500تومان

A Semantic Study of the Word “Sakina”
in the Holy Quran and Sacred Jewish Texts

Mahmood Makvand / Assistant Professor of Kharazmi University       mmakvand@khu.ac.ir

Narges Tavakkoli Mohammadi / PhD in the Hadith and Quranic Sciences, the University of Tehran

Received: 2017/12/26 - Accepted: 2018/04/29                                                                            tavakoli.nm@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The Qur'anic word "Sakina" is used only six times in three chapters of the Qur'an. According to Muslim commentators and translators of the Quran, the word "Sakina" is often translated as "calmness and tranquility" and is formed from the root "Sakan". Arab lexicographers have sometimes stated the same meaning for this term, and some other times, they have chosen other equivalents based on related narrations. However, there are a few translators who have suggested different meanings. Therefore, the existence of differing views and lack of a criterion for preferring one equivalent to the others, has made it difficult to gain a correct understand of this Qur’anic term. Using a historical-comparative method, the present paper conducts a careful study on this term in related sources, its true meaning and equivalent.  The study shows that the word "Sakina" has a common origin and meaning with its uses in sacred Jewish texts. Although we cannot definitely consider this term as being borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew languages, abundant semantic and applied similarities of these two words in the Qur'an, and Jewish narrations and sacred texts indicate its specific religious meaning. Therefore, "Sakina" is the "divine glorious presence and manifestation" which believers experience in certain circumstances.

Keywords: Sakina, Shakhina, The Quran, The Bible, Single Qur’anic words, Semantics.


An Analytical Study of the Prophetic and Alawi Lifestyles in Military Confrontation with the People of the Book

Mohammad Reza Asadi / Ph.D. Student of Religions and Mysticism at IKI reza.shaer@gmail.com

Mohammad Hossein Taheri Akerdi / Assistant Professor at IKI             Taheri-akerdi@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2017/08/23 - Accepted: 2018/02/04

 

Abstract

Dealing with the people of the Book who believe their religion, Islam, has a true origin and root, requires attention to the finesse in confrontations that help preserve the reverence of the religion of the people of the Book and appropriately confront with their invasions in the event of conspiracy. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the paper examines the prophetic and Alawi lifestyles in dealing with the people of the Book, and by studying the military aspect of confrontation, it has come to the conclusion that the reactions of the Prophet of Islam and Imam Ali to this group were always aimed at preserving Islam and never meant to destroy them. Hence, they mainly focused on morality, wisdom and Shariah in all their approaches, methods and tools. In addition to peacefulness, features such as vision, awareness, perpetual readiness, power and appropriate reaction to invasions are the most visible important features in their lifestyles.

Keywords: Religious invasion, Religious defense, People of the Book, Prophetic lifestyle, Alawi lifestyle, Military confrontation, Military approach, Military method, military instrument.


The Study of "Fatashqa"Based on the Holy Verses of Al-Taha and Parts of the Third Chapter of the Book of Genesis

 

Abdullah Fazliyan / Level 4 at the Seminary of Qom

Javad Baghbani Arani / Assistant Professor of IKI                                           Arani@Qabas.net

Received: 2017/10/26 - Accepted: 2018/04/04

 

Abstract

Suffering or hardship, which is among the grave consequences of Adam's rebellion, is referred to as “Fatashqa” in the Holy Qur’an, “al- Taeb” in the Arabic Torah, “sorrow” in the English Torah and “toilin some translations. The common aspect of all these interpretations is suffering and hardship. This consequence is mentioned in verses 117, 118 and 119 of Al-Taha chapter, and in parts 17, 18, and 19 of the third chapter of The Book of Genesis, which have some commonalities and differences.  Referring to the Holy Quran and the Torah, and based on reliable sources, this paper studies the meaning and interpretation of suffering and hardship, those who suffer, and their relationship with eating from the banned tree. It also discusses their commonalities, differences and advantages. The result of this research indicates that the interpretations used in the Holy Qur'an are very beautiful and accurate, and aim at conveying a message; in particular, the phrase “Fatashqa” along with the explanations surrounding it, interprets the phrase "for then you will of the unjust" which is among important issues in the infallibility of the prophets. Also, the commonalities of the two books justifies the confirmation of the Torah by the Quran.

Keywords: Fatashqa, al- Taeb, Suffering and hardship, The Holy Qur'an, Torah, Chapter Taha, the Book of Genesis.


Jewish Ethics: Ethnic-Oriented or Human-Oriented?

Mohammad Javad Nikdel / PhD Student of Religions and Mysticism, IKI Mjnicdel@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/04/29 - Accepted: 2017/10/27

 

Abstract

The present subject is one of the most important issues in Jewish thought. Today, many Jews believe that their moral teachings are viewed by all human beings, and there is no difference between Jewish and non-Jewish (goyim) in practicing these moral rules. However, this paper attempts to demonstrate that this claim has no solid foundation. The findings show that there are so many cases in the Torah and the Talmud (Jewish sacred books), which completely contradict this claim. These cases totally reject and weaken the basis of Jew’s claims.

Keywords: Jewish ethics, Ethical principles, Ethnic-orientedness, Human-orientedness.


The Study of the Influence of the Enlightenment on the New Christian Theology, with an Emphasis on the Ideas of Ritschl, Bultmann and Panneberg

Seyyed Ali Hasani / Associate Professor at IKI                                             Institute.seyedali5@gmail.com

Received: 2017/04/16 - Accepted: 2017/09/16

 

Abstract

The Enlightenment is a very important stage in the history of scientific developments in the West. These widespread developments have had a profound effect on Christian theology; they have led Christian theologians to abandon their several hundred- year- old beliefs and ideas, and have resulted in the emergence of new theological schools in Christianity. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper , seeks to show the role and effect of the achievements of the Enlightenment on the formation of the new Christian theology based on the thoughts of some of the new Christian theologians (Ritschl, Bultmann, and Pannenberg).The findings of this study indicate that the achievements of the Enlightenment cast doubt on the basic beliefs of Christianity, namely miracles, the validity of the Bible, the proofs of the existence of God, the revelation (mystical intuition), the doctrine of the original sin, and the identity and significance of Jesus  . Therefore, each of the Christian theologians sought to overcome this problem by presenting new ideas.

Keywords: Enlightenment, New christian theology, Christian beliefs, Albercht Ritschl, Bultmann and Pannenberg.


The Evolution of the Concept of Marriage
in the Catholic Church and Upcoming Challenges

Fatemeh Rahimi Sabet / PhD Student of Comparative Studies on Religions, the University of Religions and Denominations                                                                                                                      frahimisabet@gmail.com

Ahmad Reza Meftah / Associate Professor University of Religions And Denominations          

Received: 2018/02/03 - Accepted: 2018/06/11                                                    meftah555@gmail.com

 

Abstract

With regard to the concept of “marriage” and “family” in early Christianity, it is clarified that these concepts have undergone sweeping changes from the Jewish context to Jesus Christ and different readings by Paul and Agustin, as theologians and interpreters. They introduced the concept of marriage into the theology realm, in such a way that the common concept of marriage and family in Judaism and early Christianity was mixed with of the love relationship between Christ and church; then in Middle Ages, Catholic Church emphasized further on the theological and supernatural aspects of these concepts. But the Church which had ignored the Law, added rigid Canon law to it and created many challenges for Christians. After the second Vatican council, Catholic Church, should have contrived to take some measures for confronting these challenges and preserving Canon law and the community of believers. Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis had more efforts than the others to find a solution for this problem. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, this research illustrates how the concept of marriage is enriched by adding metaphorical and sacramental meaning to it and by extremism in the laws of Catholic Church, and shows its consequences.

Keywords: Catholic Church, Marriage, family, Canon law.


A Mystical Readings of Political Affair in Contemporary
Christian Theology Based on Erik Voegelin’s Thoughts

Somayeh Hamidi / Assistant Professor of Political Science, the University of Allameh Tabatabaei   

Received: 2018/01/21 - Accepted: 2018/05/26                                somaye.hamidi@Birjand.ac.ir

 

Abstract

The present century is the age of dominant post-modernist thinking in the realm of philosophy and west theology. In modernism, the reality source was established in the self-contained wisdom of human-being by separation from metaphysical world; in a similar vein, the basis of the Christian postmodern thought and theology was established on negating any reality in the world and separation of socio-political life from the realm of theology and metaphysical world. The concept of “political theology” proposed by Schmitt, indicated the reconsideration of the role of religion in socio-political arena by western thinkers. Offering a new reading of the concept of reality, Erik Voegelin has investigated this realm. Voegelin can be considered as believing in a connection among theology, mysticism and politics. He established the concept of reality as the basis of his own philosophy. The question of this study concerns the new reading that Voegelin offers about the relationship between theology and political act? It seems that by criticizing modern and postmodern narratives, Voegelin establishes the basis of the political order on connection with reality based on revelation and reconnecting with metaphysical and mystical world.

Keywords: Political theology, Christianity, Mysticism, Reality, Political act, Modernism, Eric Voegelin.


A Study on the Role of Magi in the Religion and History of Iran

Haniyeh Pakbaz / PhD Student of Ancient Culture and Languages, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran                                                                                                                haniehpakbaz0@gmail.com

Mahshid Mirfakhraei / Retired Professor of the Institute of the Humanities and Cultural Studies

Mohsen Abolqasemi / Retired Professor of Tehran University

Received: 2018/02/21 - Accepted: 2018/06/26

 

Abstract

There is a lot of controversy over Magi, their main origin, religion, as well as their customs and traditions. Some believe that they were neither Aryan nor Sami, but belonged to a tribe residing in Media. They were known as adept magicians, demon worshipers, pre-Zoroastrian clerics and true opponents of Zoroaster who joined the Zoroastrian religion after finding themselves unable to stand against the ubiquitous influence of Zoroastrian religion. Some consider them the rightful heirs of Zoroaster. Others believe that they were clerics who embraced Zoroaster's messages and tried to spread them. Undoubtedly, Magi have played an undeniable role in the promotion of Zoroastrianism. The influence of Magi and their specific rituals such as killing xrafstarān, xwēdōdah, carrying the dead to Daxmag from fear of the demon Nasuš’s attack and all their efforts for killing demons as described in Vendīdād and other Zoroastrian religious books, confirm this reality.

Keywords: Magi, Demon worshiper, Zoroaster, Killing demons, Vendīdād.