A Comparative Study of Quranic
and Avestan
Words about Man’s Immaterial Aspect


 Sayyed Mohammad Hajati Shurki / MA of Religions, IKI                                 Hajati65@chmail.ir

Sayyed Ali Hassani / Assistant Professor IKI                                                                                     

Received: 2017/04/06 - Accepted: 2017/08/11



Like Islam, Zoroastrian religion considers that man has two dimensions and that in addition to his corporal and apparent body, which is visible, he has an immaterial dimension. This study examines what the Qur'an and Avesta say about man’s immaterial aspect and makes a comparison between the two. In the Qur'an, five words are used to refer to the immaterial dimension of man:”ruh”,”nafs”,”qalb”,”fu’ad” and “sadr”. In Avesta also five words are used to refer to the immaterial nature of human beings: "ahou", "da’ena", "ba’uz", "oravan" and "farawshi". Using a comparative- descriptive method and emphasizing on the Quran and Avesta, especially the Gathas of Zarathushtra, the present paper first reviews these words, highlights the similarities and differences between them, and then makes a new analysis in this regard. In addition to the similarities between the Qur'anic words and Avestan words, there are significant differences as well, the most important of which is that we find correct explanation and objective analysis in the Qur'anic words and lack of proper content analysis in many Avestan vocabulary and its contradiction with the objective evidence about the real unity of man.


Key words: Spirit, Soul, Heart, Farawshi, Oravan, Da’ena, Ba’uz.


A Comparative Study of Tolerance
in Islam and Christianity


Mohammad Amir Abidiniya / Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Urmia University         m.obaydinia@urmia.ac.ir

Ali Reza Mozaffari / Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Urmia University


Kamal Rouhani / Ph.D. Student of Persian Language and Literature (Mystical Literature), Urmia University kamalrohani20@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/07/07 - Accepted: 2017/11/09



This paper examines the Islamic view of "tolerance" and compares it with "tolerance" in the view of modern Christianity. The present view of Christian tolerance dates back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and is the result of the changes brought by the religious reform movement after the officialization of Christianity by Constantine, setting up the courts of doctrinal inquisition, taking a rigid attitude towards critics and assassinating many intellectuals. Accordingly, Christian tolerance was used in this sense of “on religion", not "in religion", i.e. outside the realm of Christianity and the result of social and political necessity. In contrast, the idea of tolerance in Islam has its roots in the Qur'an, Sunna and the hadiths of the infallible Imams. Most Islamic schools offer a different interpretation of tolerance from that of Western tolerance or its universal ideas. The present paper seeks to establish the fact that the origin and levels of tolerance in Islam are fundamentally different from those of Christianity, and the issue of tolerance is not interpreted as on religion (casual) but as in religion (inherent character of religion).


Key words: Islam, The Origin of Tolerance, Christian Tolerance.


An Ontological Critique
of Jacob Bohme, a Lutheran Mystic

Ali Reza Kermani / Associate Professor of Mysticism, IKI                       Kermania59@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/05/01 - Accepted: 2017/10/03



Jacob Bohme is among the mystics who has analyzed the way in which multiplicity is emanated from unity. He holds that it is possible to know the station of the essence, to which he sometimes refers as non-essence or non-existence. Knowledge will be accessible if multiplicity is manifested and it is in the light of this manifestation that knowledge can be gained. Bohme argues that the intermediary link of the emergence of this multiplicity is the will of the essence, which seeks to see the wonders which the essence has. Therefore, a receptive level which he calls eternal wisdom is developed, and the essence sees the wonders contained therein as a word emanated from it. He believes that this word, which is actually an image reflected in the eternal wisdom, is Jesus Christ. In the next step, these outward appearances of knowledge are spread by the Holy Spirit.

Key words: Jacob Bohme, Real knowledge, The Station of Essence, Emanation of Multiplicity, The Trinity.

Linguistic Observations about
the Origin of the Language of the Book of Job


Maryam Amini / Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University of Estehban                    aminimar@gmail.com

Received: 2017/06/21 - Accepted: 2017/11/16



Despite the little attention to holy books, examining their linguistic characteristics is useful both for determining the time of their composing, which is their historical aspect, and for translating, understanding and interpreting them. Considering the literary aspect of the book of Job, its language is apparently Hebrew, but it has grammatical, lexical, and even morphological problems and intricacies which make the translation confused and ambiguous. These observations are as such that the scholars and literary critics think that the book is just a translation work. This view has been the source of attempts to find the language origin of  the book to think of finding out the origin of the language of the book. Meanwhile, the influence of Aramaic language on the vocabulary on a large scale, on its serious tone and on its grammar is worth considering. Thus, using the method of textual criticism and shifting from the religious component of the book to literal one, we sought to investigate the perspective adopted by this book as a literary masterpiece regardless of any particular worldview.


Key words: Textual Criticism, Linguistic Characteristics, The Origin of Language, Grammar, vocabulary.

A Reflection on the Doctrine of
Powerfull Gifts in the Pentecostal Church


 Mohammad Hossein Taheri Akerdi / Assistant Professor of Department of Religions, IKI


Yaser Abuzadeh Getabi / A.M of Religions, IKI                                                         y.a.g@chmail.ir

Received: 2017/04/06 - Accepted: 2017/09/05



The Powerfull gifts, like the gift of Faith and Miraculous and Healing Acts, Are Extraordinary powers which are given by the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals believe that these types of gifts are Biblical gifts that may also be received today. Hence, appealing these gifts, they embark on evangelical activities. In order to investigate whether or not this belief is reasonable, the present research uses a critical -analytical approach to study the works attributed to the Pentecostals and Biblical verses. It is proved that, in addition to the fact that the Bible regards that the age of divine gifts has ended, it warns of the belief the existence of such gifts at the Last Days, considering them as transient and those who have this claim as liars.

Key words: Pentecostalist, Holy Spirit, The Gift, Faith, Miraculous Acts, Healing, The Bible.


A Critique of the Mystical School
of Gregory Palamas, the Reviver of Oriental Christianity


 Sayyed Morteza Mirtabar / Ph.D. in Comparative Studies of Religions, the University of Religions and Denominations                                                                                                                              smmb_110@yahoo.com

Eliyas Arefzade / Assistant Professor, Faculty of Religions, University of Religions and Denominations           newaref4@gmail.com

Rahim Dehghan / Assistant Professor, Faculty of Theology and Religions, Shahid Beheshti University            r.dehghan88@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/04/04 - Accepted: 2017/08/19



Gregory Palmas, a Byzantine mystic and theologian is the founder of a new kind of quietism that has had a great influence on the monastic life in the Oriental tradition. His works display the dynamism and systematization of Oriental Orthodox Christianity. Palamas's reputation is mainly ascribed to his monastic style, which is heavily influenced by Hesychast. Among the features of his monasticism are: silence and prayer, incompatibility of monasticism with science, combating Satan's temptations, heart as the managing organ of man and as the substitute for the desert, the non-evil nature of the body and Godlikeness. His thoughts have been viewed from two sides; some consider him as an innovator, and others believe that his theology is completely rooted in the past. Several criticisms are leveled at the Palamas school, such as his absolute adherence to Hesychast’s school, anonymity of God except for monks, monks’ lack of knowledge, man’s being controlled by heart, not by mind, and so on. This paper attempts to analyze and criticize Palamas’s school by referring to the Bible and Christian monastic theology.


Key words: Gregory Palamas, Oriental Christianity, Monasticism, Theology, Hesychasts.

Holistic Education in the
Educational Ideas of the East, Based on Daoism


 Ali Vahdati, Daneshmand / P.hd Student of Philosophy of Educatio,  Tehran Univercity alivahdati@ut.ac.ir

Afzal al-Sadat Hosseini / Associate Professor of College of Psychology and Educational Sciences Tehran Univercity

Received: 2017/04/17 - Accepted: 2017/09/26



Holistic education is one of the educational trends of the late twentieth century, which, resting on spiritual foundations, attempted to overcome the shortcomings of modern educational theories. Although the origin of this approach can be found in the works of contemporary Western educators, this paper traces its roots in the old Eastern philosophical and spiritual thoughts centered on Daoism, and illustrates the encounter between the contemporary form of this approach and its eastern form in ancient time .Using content analysis and philosophical evidence, this paper first elucidates the fundamental components of Daoism in the original texts of such books like “the Tao Te Ching” by Lao Tseu and Ching tse, and then deals with the part  which this approach has in holistic education. Considering the fundamental themes of Daoism, such as the nature of Dao, the collapse of the conventional system of values, self-monitoring and negation of mind and language; the basic educational concept of "fluidity”, its basic purpose of "liberation from mind" and the fundamental concept of learning" not-learning" reveal the truth of Dao.

Key words: Holistic Education, Oriental Philosophy, Daoism, Lao Tseu, Tao Te Ching, Ching tse.