Chastity and Hijab according
to Judaism and Shiite Islam; a Comparative Analysis Centered on the Babylonian Talmud and Man La yahduruhu al-Faqih

Tahere Haj Ibrahimi / Professor at Tehran University of Science and Research


Atefe Abdikhan / PhD in Religions and Comparative Mysticism, University of Science and Research, Tehran       abdi148@chmail.ir

Majid Ma’aref / Professor at Tehran University                                                                                   

Received: 2016/08/30 - Accepted: 2016/11/11



All schools of thought consider preserving social order and well-being as the priority for moving in the right direction of progress. One of the ways to achieve this goal is to promote personal and family welfare, preserve order and strengthen family relationships and social order. Hence, Judaism and Islam try to attract their followers’ attention to the essential role of chastity and modesty in maintaining the standards of social morality. In these two divine religions, both men and women are recommended to preserve the values of chastity and Hijab, and both sexes are charged with certain duties in this regard. Performing these duties can contribute to preserving their own chastity as well as the chastity of their spouses and society. A thorough study of the prescriptions of the two religions shows that they have a lot in common in this respect. This research deals with the issue of chastity and Hijab in Judaism and Islam by resting on the contents of such fiqhi books like “Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih” and “Talmud”, which expound the idea of revelation, a question which has been a source of interest to the jurists of the two schools.

Key words: Shiite Islam, the Talmud, women, men, Man La yahduruhu al-Faqih, chastity, Jewish.

The Ways of Confronting the
"Enemy" in the Qur'an and the Hebrew Bible

Azam Sadat Shabani /MA in Quran and Hadith Sciences                      Az.shabani75@gmail.com

Soheila Jalali Kondori / Assistant Professor at the Department of Quran and Hadith Sciences, Alzahra University jalali @ alzahra.ac.ir

Received: 2017/02/28 - Accepted: 2017/07/03



For confronting the enemy, Abrahamic religions provide appropriate behavioral strategies which, according to their mission, have certain ethical principles. In order to formulate a peaceful strategy for the followers of the two religions of Islam and Judaism, the present research studies and compares the commonalities and differences between the Holy Quran and the Tanakh in confronting enemies. The term "enemy" refers to those who show enmity to the religious ideology of the religious community of Muslims and Jews. Such enemies are classified by the Qur’an into three groups of "idolaters", "infidels", "hypocrites" and "contesting believers". In Tanakh they are divided into two groups: "atheists" and "Israelites". The attitude of Muslims towards the enemy is, as described in the Qur’an, always based on wisdom and divine help. In the Tanakh, God himself confronts the enemies and man’s wisdom has no important role in this regard. For confronting the enemy, the Holy Qur'an presents a distinct course ranging from a flexible attitude to a rigid one. In the recent versions of the Hebrew scriptures, there is a reference to the moral-based attitude towards the enemy, but the contradictions in Tanakh makes the idea of the correct behavioral patterns of confronting the enemy open to question. Because of its dominant nationalistic view, the attitude adopted by Tanakh towards the enemy is an absolute rejection of the others and it is mainly defensive, but the Holy Quran, regardless of ethnic differences, offers ethical based behavior that is all inclusive and useful to all races.


Key words: the Quran, the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible, enemy, approaching of interaction.

A Comparative Study of Man’s
Destiny after Death from the Perspective of Zoroastrianism and Islam

Seyyed Muhammad Hajati Shooraki / MA of Religions, IKI.                        Hajati65@chmail.ir

Muhammad Hoseini Faryab / Assistant Professor, IKI                                     m.faryab@gmail.com

Received: 2017/02/03 - Accepted: 2017/06/16



The doctrine of life after death is among the basic principles of divine religions. The present paper is a comparative study of man’s destiny after death in the view of Zoroastrianism and Islam. Like Islam, Zoroastrian believes in the life after death, a doctrine which is referred to in several places in Avesta and Pahlavi texts. The paper first addresses the idea of the hereafter and man’s destiny after death from the perspective of Zoroastrianism and Islam, and then, making a comparison between the two, the author mentions the similarities and differences between them. He also points out to some of the similarities between the views of the two religions about the doctrine of life after death including the necessity of afterlife and its continuity until the Resurrection, and the reward and punishment assigned for the righteous and sinners. There are also some differences between them; for example Zoroastrianism believes that man’s abodes in the world after death are heaven, hell and Hamistegan, whereas Islam believes that they are two: purgatory heaven and hell. Zoroastrians think that the soul is brought back to without body in the world after death but Muslims believe that the soul together with a body suited to it is brought back to life in the world after the death. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper discusses this subject by referring to the Qur'an, the Avesta and Pahlavi texts.

Key words: Zoroastrianism, Islam, afterlife, purgatory, Hamistegan, the bridge of (Sirat) over hell, the bridge of Chinut.

The Conflicts between the
New and Traditional Views about the Bible

Seyyed Ali Hasani / Assistant Professor at the Department of Religions, IKI            seyedAli5@Gmail.com

Received: 2016/06/20 - Accepted: 2016/10/25



The major developments that have occurred in the Christian world in the West since the Renaissance challenge various fields. For instance, the change in Christian theologians’ views about the Bible challenges the traditional view. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper seeks to investigate the challenges brought about by the new perspectives about the Bible. The research results indicate that the traditional view of the Bible which faces an enormous challenge is unacceptable, so that some groups such as the feminists began to think of discarding the current Bible and replacing it with a feminist version.

Key words: the Bible, traditional view, new perspectives, the conflict between science and the Bible, the movement of criticizing the Bible.

A Critique of Paul’s Anthropology

Qorban Elmi / Associate Professor- Tehran University                                              gelmi@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2016/11/06 - Accepted: 2017/04/16



This paper is an analytical and critical study of Paul’s anthropology. Understanding his theology depends on understanding his anthropology. The effect of divine revelation and grace on man is the heart of his theology. Paul holds that man consists of three dimensions: body, soul and spirit, each of which consists of two components: 1. body and figure 2. mind and heart 3. soul and spirit. There are two ways of living: in accordance with the agreement of God and in accordance with the period before the rise of Christianity. When he discusses man’s essence, he mentions three conditions: creation, Fall and salvation. With regard to the aim of man’s creation, he believes that man was created by God in order to establish strong ties with Him. Before the Fall, Adam committed an original sin of his own free will and was put in an unpleasant situation. His sin was transmitted to his children and his sin led to his death. Man is inclined to sin, and doing good deeds and salvation is not possible without God's grace. Salvation is God's free gift which man can get through divine grace and faith in God.


Key words: human, human nature, primordial sin, salvation, Paul.

An Analysis of the Theory of Maya in the Vedas

 Zahra Eskandari / PhD Student of Transcendental Philosophy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Sa’id Rahimiyan / Professor of Shiraz University                                           m_shahrudi@yahoo.com

Sayed Morteza Hosseini Shahrudi / A Professor of Ferdosi University of Mashhad                                  

Received: 2016/09/23 - Accepted: 2017/01/30                                              shahrudi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir



The doctrine of Maya which is introduced by Hinduism to show how man was created is one of the most important parts of Hindu theology. This doctrine indicates that the process of creation is, in fact, a kind of Brahman’s manifestation, and the world represents Brahman’s shade and his dream. The theory of Maya, which is one of the results of the pantheistic perspective, is mainly discussed in the book Upanishads and was developed by the mystics of Vedanta school, especially Shankara, one of the prominent thinkers of this school. This study aims to show that the theory of Maya does exist, though not in a detailed form, in the series of “Vedas", the oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the world. For this purpose, the paper makes a philosophical and semantic investigation of the theory of Maya in order to prove it in the light of the hymns of the Vedas, including the hymes of "creation" and "Prosha".

Key words: Maya, the Vedas, expression, hallucination, mysterious power.

A Comparative Study of the Allegorical
Commonalities between Indian and Islamic Mysticism

Homeira Zomorodi / Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, University of Tehran

Elahe Abin / Ph.D. Student of Persian Language and Literature, University of Tehran

Received: 2017/02/08 - Accepted: 2017/06/19                                                         abinelahe@ut.ac.ir



"Allegory" is one of the most commonly used methods for expressing abstract meanings in Persian literature, which makes complicated and intangible religious and mystical subjects more simple and easy to understand. The language of allegory is the best and closest language to human understanding, because it expresses the conditions of the human being and the world in the form of sense and experience. This literary style can also be noticed in mystical texts, especially Indian mystical texts. A comparative and bilateral study of Persian and Hindu literature indicates that there are allegorical similarities and commonalities between them. For this purpose, making a review of some Indian mystical texts and prominent Persian mystical texts, this paper makes a comparative study of the art of allegory and comments on the fiction allegories common between Persian and Indian. The research findings indicate that the fiction allegories in Persian literature are similar to those of the Indian mystical literature in content as well as the structure and elements of allegory.

Key words: mysticism, fiction allegory, Indian allegories, Persian allegories, allegorical commonalities.

Division Theology,
a Method Based on Social Action in Religious Dialogue

 Mohammad Javad Dhorriye / Ph.D. Student of Transcendental Philosophy, Isfahan University   


Zahra Abyar / Ph.D. Student of Religious Studies, Qom University of Religions and denominations       abyar.z114@gmail.com

Mohammad Saeed Akbari Dehghan / PhD Student of Religious Studies, Qom University of Religions and denominations                                                                                                            saeedakbarimanzar@gmail.com

Received: 2017/02/19 - Accepted: 2017/06/26



One of the necessities and aspirations of humanity in the present time is the understanding among the different religions and denominations so that the thinkers on dialogue among religions adopt different methods for dealing with this issue. The Dialectic Method of “division theology” attempts to build a bridge of similarities over the gap between religious traditions while adhering to one’ own religious traditions, which leads to an understanding of the other and creating a certain kind of life with social action, that is, if different religions and denominations want to reach a mutual understanding in addition to adhering to one’s own beliefs, it is necessary that, focus would be on the similar points and social issues and they engage in dialogue focusing on key such issues as human rights, freedom of speech and freedom of belief or on issues such as war, violence, and role of religions and denominations in setting international disputes. Islam seriously considers this issue under the title of inherent human dignity and the natural human rights. Accordingly the religious commonalities between the two sides can lead to a understanding and contribute to healing the divisions among religions and denominations. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this research attempts to give an account of the new dialectical method of "division theology" based on social action citing evidence convincing from Islamic teachings to introduce a new methodology for entering into a dialogue among religious traditions.

Key words: division theology, dialogue, social action, religions, Raparel.