Abstracts / Mahmud Karimi

 

An Analytical and Comparative Study of Different Versions of the Story of Uriah's Wife and the Prophet David (with special focus on Imam Rida’s Perspective)

Ali Asadi*

Believing in the immunity of prophets from intentional and inadvertent sins is among the recognized Shiite beliefs. The efficiency of the process of revelation and the leadership of prophets in guiding mankind require such an immunity. The stories and reports known as Jewish Narrations (Israiliyyat) on certain prophets have always been one of the challenging grounds on prophets immunity and on the doctrinal deviation of certain Muslim sects. Thus the Household of the Prophet have always argued with their opponents in order to defend the immunity of the prophets and elevate them from undue accusations. Arguments of Imam Rida particularly in defense of Prophet David and rejecting the story known as that of Uriah̛ s wife are a typical example. This story is one of the Israelite Stories borrowed from the Old Testament finding a wide coverage in the interpretation of the verses concerning one of the judgments of the Prophet David and his trials. Having failed to reach the true version of this story, and in defense of the immunity of Prophet David, most commentators have denied it outright. Others have presented more moderate readings of the story towards reconciling it with the immunity of the prophets after acknowledging the story and its relation with David trials. Having considered the story as a false one and refusing its application to the verses concerning the trials of Prophet David, Imam Rida-in his argument with Ali b. Jahm-has given the true account of Uriah̛ s wife and the alteration affecting the story. The present article conducts a comparative and analytical study of the account of the Old Testament, and those of Muslim commentators and Imam Rida concerning this story.

Keywords: Prophet David, Uriah̛ s wife, Imam Rida, Jewish narrations on the immunity of prophets

Zoroastrianism: Monotheistic or Dualistic

Seyyed Akbar Hoseini Qaleh Bahman*

Having faced numerous vicissitudes, Zoroastrianism has had a variety of experiences throughout the history. This religion is full of ambiguities, ranging from the birth date and birth place of Zoroaster -as the founder of this religion -to its being monotheistic or polytheistic. The present article is an attempt to remove a part of these ambiguities. It deals with the position of this religion and studying it as a monotheistic or a dualistic one. The outcome of the article is that Zoroastrianism has originally been a monotheistic religion having gradually turned towards dualistic leanings. At the time being, the traces of monotheism may be found in it. However, the central topic of the article is the final truth or the final objective of this religion.

Keywords: Zoroastrian, Avesta, Ormazd, Ahriman, Spenta Mainyu, Zervan.

A Survey of the Thoughts of Albert the Great

Muhammad Jafari*

Albert is the first thinker who presented the doctrines of Aristotelians to the West in the Middle Ages. Getting familiar with Aristotelian philosophy via Muslim commentators and writing commentaries on Aristotle̛ s books, he sought to present a complete educational body comprising every panch of science and knowledge to the Romans. Combination of philosophy and religious teachings was officially forbidden at that time by the church. However, it found recognition in Catholic theology by Albert and his student, Aquinas. The role and position of Aquinas should be taken into consideration in training a student like Aquinas who is considered the greatest philosopher and theologian in the Christian era. The present article seeks to elaborate the intellectual methodology of Albert and the extent of his being influenced by Muslim philosophers particularly Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd.

Keywords: Albert the Great, Ibn Rushd, Aquinas, fideism, theological issues, reason and, Religion

Foundations of the Legitimacy of War in Judaism "Malhamat Miswa" and "Malhamat Rashvat"

Muhammad Rida Barteh*

Judaism like any other religion considers war as an undeniable fact in human life . Analyzing different aspects of this fact and taking into consideration the views of Jewish scholars , it seeks to present clear principles for the legitimacy of war and its leadership. In this process, Halakhah relevant to Malhamat Miswa has occurred. Malhamat Miswa is an obligatory war in Judaism whose objective is continuation of the domination of Children of Israel on the Promised Land and defending the Jewish integrity. However, the experience of establishment of a monarchical government on the one hand, and confrontation of Jewish scholars with modern governmental systems on the other hand paved the way for the raising the issue of a legitimate war known as Malhamat Rashwat. Malhamat Rashwat prescribes for the king to wage a Jewish expansionist war rather than a defensive war, with the aspiration of making geographical expansion or promoting the rule of the Jews . It may continue as long as the enemy is surrendered or destroyed.

Keywords: Malhamat Miswa, Malhamat Rashvat, Legitimacy of War.

A Study and Criticism of Apocalyptic Literature in Judaism

Abdulhusein Epahimi Sarve Olia* / Amir Khavas**

The issue of ‘future’ and other relevant issues particularly eschatology and End of the Time are of special importance in Judaism. Taking a cursory look at the revelation of Jewish prophets in the Old Testaments , we see most of them having visions and dreams about the future of the Jewish people and their land. This study is an attempt to analyze and criticize the apocalypses of Jewish prophets concerning the future of the Jews, Jerusalem, and deliverance of this people at the End of the Times according to the Scriptures. The apocalyptic literature is of high significance among Jews, since certain Jewish sects are seeking to establish the great Jewish state and people , relying on this literature. Having defined relevant terms, the article deals with some apocalypses of Jewish prophets, the typology of these revelations, and the prophecy of the good or bad fate of the Jewish people.

Keywords: apocalypse, revelation, inspiration, vision, eschatology, prophecy, Judaism

Women’s Veil or Hijab in Zoroastrianism,

Judaism, and Christianity

Mahnaz Alimardi* / Muhammad Mahdi Alimardi**

Man is the vicegerent of God and the central point of the universe according to the worldview of divine religions. He is charged with the mission of acquisition of due knowledge, purification of soul, and reformation of the society. He is supposed to continue his life towards the next world. Natural or innate directions and revealed instances of guidance give rise not only to preservation of human dignity but to actualization and flourish of his intellectual and spiritual potentials. Some hold that veil or Hijab is merely the outcome of a cultural interaction. As a result, divine religions do not have any specific rule or regulation concerning the manner of women’s presence before men. They say the rule of Hijab is not supported by any religious proof or evidence. Taking a theoretical approach, the present article studies the verification of this view and elaborates the religious evidence concerning veil or Hijab.

Keywords: veil, covering, chastity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity

Abstracts

Liberation Theology of Latin America,

Roots and Causes of Formation

Yaser Askari* / Shamsullah Mariji**

Dialogue with the followers of Apahamic religions and political allies in the contemporary world is one of the issues of high consideration for the government and Islamic centers in our country. The liberation theology of Latin America is one of the modern and critical theological currents in the Christian world stressing on the presence of religion in socio-political fields. It considers military governments dependent on the West, colonizers, and multinational companies as the root causes of poverty in the countries of this region. This theology introduces struggle, education, and public enlightenment as the right path towards divine kingdom. The present article is an attempt to identify this theology towards establishing relations and interactions with justice seeking movements in the world and reinforcing the world resistance front against the World imperialism and arrogance. Our research method is desk survey. One of the significant results of this research is precise knowledge of the efficient causes in the formation and historical background of these movements towards establishing interactions with this theological current. Leaders of this school consider such an interaction necessary seeing the pilliant future of their religion in the light of interaction with Islam.

Keywords: Latin America, liberation theology, political theology, Marxism, preferring the poor

Table of Contents

An Analytical and Comparative Study of Different Versions of the Story of Uriah's Wife and the Prophet David (with special focus on Imam Rida’s Perspective) / Ali Asadi 5

Zoroastrianism: Monotheistic or Dualistic / Seyyed Akbar Hoseini Qaleh Bahman 23

A Survey of the Thoughts of Albert the Great / Muhammad Jafari 47

Foundations of the Legitimacy of War in Judaism "Malhamat Miswa" and "Malhamat Rashvat" / Muhammad Rida Barteh 63

A Study and Criticism of Apocalyptic Literature in Judaism / Abdulhusein Epahimi Sarve Olia 83

Women’s Veil or Hijab in Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity / Mahnaz Alimardi, Muhammad Mahdi Alimardi 117

Liberation Theology of Latin America, Roots and Causes of Formation / Yaser Askari, Shamsullah Mariji 139

In the Name of Allah

Proprietor: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Manager: Sayyid Akbar Husseini

Editior in Chief: Mohammad Ali Shomali

Translation of Abstracts: Mahmud Karimi

Editorial Board:

ª Hoseiin Tofighi: Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Sayyid Akbar Husseini: Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Ami Khawas: Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Mohammad Ali Shomali: Associate Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Ghorban Elmi: : Associate Professor, Tehran University

ª Mohammad Bagher Ghayomi: Faculty Member, Jame'at al-mustafa al-Alamiyah

ª Dr. Ali Reza Kermani: Assistant Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

ª Dr. Mohammad Legenhauzen: Professor, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

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