The Defensive Measures of Islam against
the Economic War Waged by the the Followers of the Book

Mohammad Reza Asadi \ Ph.D Student of Mysticism&Religions, IKI   reza.shaer@gmail.com

Mohammad Hosein Taheri Akerdi \ Assistant Professor IKI                   Taheri-akerdi@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2016/07/14 - Accepted: 2016/11/26



As the followers of divine religions before Islam, “the followers of the Book " did not have a rigid attitude about their relations with Muslims, though some of them at least expressed hostility against Muslims and launched various kinds of onslaughts against them, including an economic war. Using a descriptive- analytical method, the present paper which examines the economic war waged by the followers of the Book, shows that Islam adopted effective measures, used efficient methods and tools, and showed necessary reactions against these attacks. Following a proper procedure to monitor and control the situation of the followers of the Book and Muslims, Islam took drastic steps to diminish the risk of such onslaughts. The Quran and lifestyle of the Infallibles guided Muslims ideologically and practically and contributed to ensuring economic security and their absolute sovereignty over the Islamic community. Fostering the wellbeing of domestic economy, preserving national independence, controlling the economy of the followers of the Book and their defense budget are among the most important issues on which Islam emphasizes in this regard.

Key words: ensuring economic security, the followers of the Book, Islamic strategy, the method of Islam, the tools of Islam.

The Greco-Roman Origin
of the Content and Structure of the Basic Christian Teachings

 Hassan Dinpanah / PhD Student of Religions, IKI.                      hasandinpanah@gmail.com

Seyed Ali Hasani / Assistant Professor of Religions, IKI.                         seyedAli5@gmail.com

Received: 2016/06/15 - Accepted: 2016/10/19



After AD 70, Christianity managed to dispense with Judaism. The idea of independence and separation from Judaism made Christianity tend towards Greco-Roman civilization, thoughts and culture. For explaining the Christian teachings, Paulus and some vindicators and Church fathers borrowed the content or structure of the basic religious characteristics of Christianity from the Greco-Roman ideas of their age. Using documentary analysis, the present paper explains the Greco-Roman origin of the Trinity, Incarnation, the Atonement and original sin, which are considered as the central Christian doctrines. The results of this research show that Christianity’s interpretation of the content and structure of "the Trinity" and "incarnation" is based on the Greek categories. The content of "atonement" and "original sin" exist in Christianity, but their form and structure have been influenced by Greco-Roman culture.

Key words: divinity, the Trinity, incarnation, atonement, original sin, Greco-Roman.

The Relationship between Paul’s Ethics and Aristotelian Virtues Ethics

Mehrab Sadeqniya / Assistant Professor at The Department of Abrahamic Religions, Qom University of Religions and Denominations                                                                                                                        sadeghniam@gmail.com

Hamideh Amir Yazdani / PhD Student of Religious Comparative Studies, Qom University of Religions and Denominations                                                                                                      amiryazdanihamideh@gmail.com

Received: 2016/07/18 - Accepted: 2016/11/30



To Aristotle and Paul, the subject of ethics deals with the answer to the question as to how one should be, not what one should do. In the eyes of each of them, ethics is concerned with virtues, not with actions. Consequently, both of them consider the idea that ethics is a set of standards of behavior that has been replaced by expounding the idea of one’s self. However, the difference between Paul’s principles and Aristotle's principles lessens the possibility of identifying the ideas of of these two thinkers and producing one ethical theory. First, Paul’s ethical theory is based on three principles: faith, hope and love. Aristotle stresses on four virtues: justice, wisdom, courage and moral purity, each of which has several epistemological outcomes in the field of ethics. Second, the emphasis of Paul’s ethics on the role of grace in man’s happiness on one hand, and the different definition of virtue and the emphasis of Aristotle’s ethics on the epistemological role of practical philosophy, on the other hand, highlight the mentioned difference. Despite the fact that Greek culture has exerted influence on Paul’s theology, prescription of his ethical standards is by no means dependent on Aristotelian virtues. The discussion in the present paper is centered on such subjects like Aristotle’s definition of virtues, investigating the general coordinates of Paul's ethics, reviewing the three mentioned principles in his epistles and underlying its difference with Aristotle's ethics.

Key words: Paul, Aristotle, virtues, faith, hope, love, final judgment.

A Critique of the Doctrine
of Speaking Different Languages in the View of Pentecostal Church

Yasser Abuzadeh Getabi / MA Student of Religions and Mysticism, IKI                                    

Morteza Sane’i / Assistant Professor at IKI                                                          sanei@qabas.net

Received: 2016/08/15 - Accepted: 2017/01/02



The doctrine of speaking different languages is one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit whereby one can speak a human dead language , the language of angels or ambiguous and unintelligible languages. Pentecostalists believe that possession of this gift is a sign of the legitimacy of this faith in the Last Days. Therefore, they frequently preach this doctrine in their missionary work to manipulate people. The present study seeks to consider this issue and see whether or not is has a sound basis in the Bible. Therefore, using critical analysis and examining Pentecostal documents, this study expounds this doctrine and refers to some Biblical verses to check its authenticity. The most important findings of this study are the criticisms of the Bible that regard this gift to be related to the age of the Prophet Jesus and his apostles, and consider generalizing it to the contemporary age as contrary to the biblical verses.


Key words: the Bible, Holy Spirit, speaking different languages, Pentecostal church.

Ethical Godlikeness in Judaism; an Evolving and Changing Concept

Seyyed Mohammad Hasan Saleh / PhD Student of Religions and Mysticism, IKI                      

Received: 2016/07/28 - Accepted: 2016/12/14                                m.hasansaleh2010@gmail.com



The theory of values is one of the important elements in any ethical system according to which the criterion for distinguishing right acts from wrong acts in every ethical system is determined. In the Jewish ethical system, the theory of values has a teleological property; i.e. man achieves the goal of Godlikeness by adhering to moral principles and avoiding vices, and so deserves to be called holy, just and honest. Expounding the requirements and scope of the concept of Godlikeness based on inter-religious sources, the present paper seeks to investigate its process according to the four-fold stages of Jewish ethics. It seems that in pre-modern ethical stages, Godlikeness succeeded to ensure its position as one of the objectives of Jewish ethical system. However, influenced by Kant’s ideas, the nature of Jewish ethics in modern time undergoes transformation from teleology into deontology. However, some instances of the authenticity of Godlikeness can be detected in this morality.

Key words: theory of values, Godlikeness, teleology, Torah ethics, rabbinical ethics.

The Factors Affecting the Mutual Exchanges of Religious Ideas along “Silk Road”, with Emphasis on the Role of Indian Religions

 Zahra Alizadeh Birjandi / Associate Professor at the Department of History, University of Birjand                               


Zahra Hamedi / Assistant Professor at the Department of History, Islamic Azad University,

                                                                                                   Darab z_hamedi2003@yahoo.com

Akram Naseri / PhD Student of the History of Iran, Ferdowsi University,                                  

Received: 2016/07/10 - Accepted: 2016/11/11                     Mashhad, akram.naseri@stu.um.ac.ir



 “Silk Road” is an excellent example of the mutual exchange of religious ideas among the countries that lay along this road or among those travelling along it. The role of Indian religions in the mutual exchange of religious ideas and intercultural communication is, for specified reasons, particularly significant. The exchange of religious ideas along “Silk Road” have had various outcomes and, to date, have played a key role in developing the identity of this road. The outcomes of such interactions can be divided into various kinds: artistic, intellectual, social and political. In fact, an analysis of these impacts indicates the various artistic developments in the sculpture and painting and the eclecticism of art and architecture of the cultures of the countries along “Silk Road”. This paper expounds the changes in the artistic styles, religious ideas and the eclectic taste of some denominations resulting from the exchange of different ideas among those who frequently travel on “Silk Road”. Using an analytical method, the paper seeks to investigate the role of India in the exchange of religious ideas, the impact of the confrontations between religious beliefs, the factors affecting them and the dialogue between the religions along “Silk Road”. The research results indicate the impact of the political attitudes and interests of the powers dominating “Silk Road” and the ideological principles and intellectual foundations of religions on exchanging religious ideas.

Key words: Silk Road, India, changes in religious ideas, Indian religions.

The Concept of God in Nuer

Qorban Elmi/ Associate Professor of Comparative Religions and Mysticism, University of Tehran

Hossein Omidi / M.A Student of Islamic Teachings, Farhangian University of Shiraz                              gelmi@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2016/07/26 - Accepted: 2016/12/18                                       Hosseinomidi2015@yahoo.com



Using a theoretical- analytical method, this study describes, analysis and criticizes the ideas relating to the religion of Nuer presented in the field of theology. Referring to Evans-Pritchard’s anthropological studies and investigating the concept, function and attributes of God, this paper tries to prove that initial Nuer believed in an innate God. In the past, many considered the notion of God as something superstitious and imaginary and ascribed its development to man’s fear. Proposing the idea of innate theology in the religion of Nuer, Pritchard compares it with civilized religions and shows that the religious concept of "theology" is not imaginary. According to Pritchard’s research findings, the theology of Nuer is complex, unique, it is identical to organized and civilized religions and it is tangled in the religious life of those who follow Nuer. Accordingly, Nuer considers God is as a moral god with such attributes like being compassionate, creative, originating of traditions, seeing, hearing, protective, the father and friend of mankind, omnipotent, omnipresent, as well as being life-giving  and life-taking. He resides in a throne in heavens having the  form of a heavenly spirit called "Ke’uth".


Key words: religion of Nuer, concept of God, attributes of God, function of God.

An Explanation and Evaluation of the Differences between Digimbara and Svetambara Sects with Regard to Creation, Reincarnation and Liberation of Women in Jainism

Sa’eed Reza Montazeri / Assistant Professor University of Religions and Denominations


Vahid Pezeshki / A.M University of Religions and Denominations adyanworld@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/09/07 - Accepted: 2017/01/07



The problem of "the female sex", its appearance and rotation in “Samsara" and her liberation from this cycle are among the subjects discussed in Jainist religious texts. There is a relationship between human’s gender and liberation and in the Jain texts. The issue of woman's liberation has always been controversial for the two sects of Digimbara and Svetambara. Raising the subject of woman’s psychological- Karma and physical states, Digimbara regards woman as incapable of achieving liberation. But Svetambara believes that achieving  the three Jewels of perfection in Jainism i.e. right faith, right knowledge and right conduct, are sufficient to liberate a man or woman in his/her present body. That is, since this issue is the main point of difference between the two schools of Svetambara and Digimbara, the theses of both groups include the arguments and debates between the two sects. Clearly, this study leads us to a new approach to the beliefs of this Indian religion with regard to the status of woman in their religious thoughts.

Key words: Moksha, The Jewels of Jainism, The Elements of Karma, Mahniya Karma, Estariveda, Pumaveda, Napumaskaveda, Gunsthana.


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