Iconography; the Manifestation of Religious Art Among the Imamites and Orthodox Christians


Leila Hoshangi / Assistant Professor of Alzahra University                           lhoosh@alzahra.ac.ir

Reyhaneh Gholamiyan / M.A Student of Religion and Comparative Mysticism adyan.reyhaneh@gmail.com

Received: 2014/03/01 - Accepted: 2015/07/09


Considering the importance of the manifestations of religious art in the great religious traditions of the world and their role in strengthening the religious beliefs of the faithful, the paper examines the subject from different aspects including the manner of relationship of religions manifestations with Divine theology and Divine presence, the relationship of these religious works with religious acts and rituals, aesthetic aspects and many issues. Using an analytical-theoretical approach, the paper conducts a brief investigation into the theoretical principles on the religious art in the Imamite tradition and Orthodox Christians to study the position of figurative narrations, religious symbols and icons and their role in the preaching of beliefs to the followers of the two ancient and wealthy traditions. Of course, owing to the wide range of religious artworks, emphasis is put in Imamites on presenting a vivid picture of the Event to Ashura and in Orthodox Christians of Crucifix. In the historical investigation of each of these instances, the general view of each religious tradition has been expounded.

Key words: Portraiture, Iconography, The Shi’ah, Ashura, Orthodox Christians, Religious art.

Religious Violence under the Banner of Literalism (Formalism) in Islam and Christianity; with Emphasis on Islamic Salafism and Christian Fundamentalism


Rohollah Shahamat Dehsorkhi / M.A Student of Ibrahimi Religions, IKI                                            

Seyyed Ali Hassani / Assistant Professor of Religions Department                    seyedAli5@Gmail.com

Received: 2015/04/05- Accepted: 2015/08/19


Nowadays, we face growing truculence and extremisim under the banner of religious beliefs. In Islam and in Christianity such groups like Salafis and fundamentalists who claim religious purity draw erroneous conclusions from religious texts, which, in some cases, result in adopting extreme positions on religious matters. On inquiry, we find that, besides the political motives, there are different factors behind the extremism and violence to which these two groups restort. Among the most important of them is the adoption of literalist approach to interpreting religious texts.

With the aim of creating a fair compromise between Islam and Christianity regarding their attitudes towards religious extremism, the paper investigates some instances of the tendency towards literalism in inferring religious teachings from the Qur'an and the Bible, and evaluates the relation between choosing this method and the emergence of religious extremism. Establishing the fact that there is direct relationship between Salafists’ literalism which has incited many current brutalities and that of Fundamentalists is among the most important findings of this research.

Key words: Fundamentalism, Salafism, Religious Truculence, Literalism, Textualism, Formalism.

A Comparative Study of the Image of Satan in Divine Religions

Mohammad Hasen Ya’ghobiyan / Assistant Professor in the “Quran-o-Itrat” University, Isfahan

Received: 2015/02/23- Accepted: 2015/07/05                                mohammadyaghoobian@yahoo.com


This research seeks through a descriptive-analytical approach and a comparative method to examine the image of Satan shown in three books; the Avesta, the Bible and the holy Quran and expound the view of the followers of these religions about the positive and negative portrayal and the scale of Satan’s interference and authority. Daeva in the Avesta, as distinct from Satan presented in the Bible and Iblis in the holy Qur’an, is a creature. Satan is presented in the Bible as a creature that does good to man and also as an evil and powerful creature capable of penetrating into man. But, in the holy Quran, Iblis is depicted as an independent creature that selected the path to evil and has no power except tempting man to do commit sins. There are also some narrow conceptions and misconceptions of Satan which developed over time and was instituted in the culture of these religions. Such components like divinity and authority to interfere in creations’ affairs in Zoroastrianism and in carnation, positivism and Satanism in Christianity and theologian-mystic positivism in Islam are among these misconceptions.

Key words: Satan, The image of Satan, Satan in the Divine Religions.

A Historical Review and Critique of The Book of Job

Maryam Amini / Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University of Estehban     aminimar@gmail.com

Msoud Jalali Moghadam / Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University of Rey

Received: 2015/01/23 - Accepted: 2015/07/04


One of the most important methodology of textual study as a basis for religion study is historical criticism which was formed regarding the Bible about 18th century.One of the books that Protestants took into most consideration, was the book of Job.Trying for reconstruction of past realities, free from influence of any dogma, theological thoughts or traditional interpretations, shows that these books, including the book of Job, aren’t compositional but really redactional, i.e. several authors or editors were involved in compiling, revising & manipulating in some different periods.Regarding historical criticism steps, this research deals to source, form & redation criticism & by this complicated editorial process we find that past dispersed Hebrew traditions as smaller pericopes opened their way gradually to greater periscopes in canon.Thus it is said that interpretation & understanding of Jewish literature is as Jewish history.

Keywords: Historical Criticism Methodology, The book of Job, Form Criticism, Redation Criticism, book Framework & Style, Anthropodicy, Hagiographa.

Analytical and Critical Reflections
on India’s Nâstika Philosophical Schools

Amir Khavas / Assistant Professor of Religion Department of IKI                sajed1362@yahoo.com

Received: 2015/02/28 - Accepted: 2015/07/19


 At first glance, most people unconsciously associate the name of India, with such issues like superstition, idolatry, certain various ceremonies and ascetics and so on. However, there have been many scholars throughout the checkered history of this land, who have thought about rational, philosophical, theological and mystical issues and started different schools of thought. Generally speaking, the scholars of ancient India who were contemporary with Greek thinkers developed theological and philosophical thoughts too, and some advanced interesting theories in this regard. These schools of thought are based on four-fold pivots. Some are based on accepting the probative validity and authority of Vedas and some on rejecting them. Some philosophical thoughts and ideas in India are based on the Holy Scriptures and in general the purpose of these schools is religion-oriented. This paper examines the three Nâstika schools.

Keywords: India, Vedas, Classical Period, Philosophical Schools, Stykh, Nâstika.

The Effect of European Theology on the Development of Latin America’s Liberation Theology

Sayyed Morteza Mirtabar / PhD Student of Religion's Comparative Study, University of Religions


Mohsen Akhbari / Ph.D Student of Women's Study, University of Religions mohsenakhbary@gmail.com

Narges Akhbari / M.A Student of Philosophy of Religion                            narjesakhbary@gmail.com

Received: 2014/06/10- Accepted: 2014/11/25


 Because liberation theology developed in response to European thought this kind of theory in Latin America has roots in secular and religious events and movements in the mid-twentieth century in Europe. Jurgen Multman, Jean Maritain and Dietrich Bunhafr are among the European thinkers whose views are inflected in liberation theology. According to Multman’s view, what God has promised in the Bible is the resurrection of Jesus and the whole creation in the light of God's power, which is strongly linked to Christians’ social and political actions for the revitalization of human society. Therefore, it is regarded worldly, not other-worldly. This means that the church has a kinship with the world. Maritain believes that man has to endeavor to foster the material, social and spiritual development of every individual in the society, and this requires collaborative and collective efforts. Moreover, Bunhafr argues that Christians’ duty in today’s secular and atheist world is to share the sufferings of the Lord for reviving Christian’s faith in this world to prepare the grounds for establishing divine angelic world and justice. Therefore, it can be said that the great liberation theologians of Latin America are affected by European theologians and made use advantage of European views for expressing their own views. Thus, one of the main sources of liberation theology is European theology and Western theologians have contributed to the development of the theology in Latin America.

Key words: Theology of Liberation, Multman, Bunhafr, Maritain, Europe, Latin America.

A Critical Review of the Critique of the Article
“Similarity between Monotheistic Religions”;
Distortion of the Bible and the Quran

Hossein Naghavi / Assistant Professor of Department of Religion, IKI         Sadeqnaqavi@Yahoo.com

Received: 2015/05/31- Accepted: 2015/8/11


The present paper is a critique of the article “Similarity between Monotheistic Religions; Distortion of the Bible and the Quran” which appeared in the 21st issue of the journal “Knowledge of Religions”. Pointing out the incompleteness of the suppositions and ideas in the article “Similarity between Religions”, the critic tries to render unsound answer to the doubt raised about “literal distortion of the Quran by resting on the traditions showing the similarity of between nations”. He argues that answering this doubt i.e. similarity is not complete; it is a rather right answer. He believes that traditions of similarity are related by one person and one cannot prove beliefs through such narrations. Moreover, he holds that the impossibility of comparing the Quran with the Bible does not answer the doubts raised by Mohaddeth Nuri. We should not regard the implication of traditions on similarity to be perfect and the idea of literal distortion of the Quran must be dismissed .Using new statements, this paper seeks to prove the claim that Mohaddeth Nuri has made a mistake when he compared the Qur’an with the Bible because this is a false analogy. Besides, a new reasoning called “traditions on similarity between religions and proving the literal infallibility of the Quran” was presented. It verifies the literal infallibility of the Quran”.

Key words: Similarity Between Religions, Similarity Between Traditions, Doubts Regarding the Literal Distortion of the Quran, Distortion of the Testaments, Impossibility of Distortion of the Quran.