An Inquiry into Sectology

Abolfazl Tajik*, Ehsan Ahmadi**


 As one of the forms of man's social life, sects have always had their own complexities and mysteries. The closed atmosphere of a sect and vagueness of its domain and beliefs prevents outside observers from understanding the depth of its beliefs and teachings and provide not ample opportunity for having preliminary information on its views. The reports given by converts are the only relatively reliable resource in this regard. Even if these reports are true, they are mixed with a sense of anger and hatred hidden behind the different layers of these accounts and are distant from the neutrality which a scientific report is expected to have. On the other hand, modern psychology which studies behavior and has philosophical approaches in its traditional form greatly contributes to the acquaintance with the hidden and unspoken layers of sects. In our country, the study made about sects generally focuses on analyzing and criticizing the sects in terms of their theological and ideological aspect and little trace is found of the covert and overt aspects of behavior, mechanisms and teachings of sects in these studies. The present paper seeks to study some of these aspects and the role which psychology has sects.

Key words: sect, psychology, society, psychological mechanisms, mental damages.

The Term "God" in the Introduction of John's Gospel; Positions and Views

Mohammad Sadiq Ahmadi*


 Although "logos" (Word) have not always been mentioned directly and explicitly in the Jewish tradition and Holy Hebrew Scripture, the terms "wisdom", "Memra" …appears in the Old Testament which has the same functions as that of "logos" (the Word)" in the philosophy of Greece, the New Testament and even the Quran. Philo of Alexandria, one of the greatest Jewish philosophers and earliest theologian philosophers, has an important role in the coming of this term into religious literature. He has assigned many meanings to this term, so that some scholars have counted more that 60 meanings intended by Philo. John thought in a Hellenic context. When he named Jesus in the introduction of his Gospel as "the Word", the audience of his Gospel was familiar with this term and understood it completely in a Hellenic context. Among the different approaches to the etymon of this term mentioned in the introduction of John's Gospel, the view that philosophy of Greece and Philo were more influential than other factors in the coming of this term into the literature of the New Testament and John seems to have stronger evidence.

Key words: the Word, Jesus, logos, John, Philo, philosophy of Greece.

The Doctrine of Fayd (Emanation) from Old Testament to Augustine; Differences and Similarities

Ra'oof Nosratian*


The doctrine of fayd (emanation) serves as a joint point between the fundamental concepts of Christianity. Paul was the first one who assigned a theological meaning to this term. He believed that emanation is the main factor of salvation.  It can be understood from all Paul's words that emanation is a testimony to God's gracious act which freely offers salvation to those who do not deserve it. After Paul, Church fathers developed this concept. Among the church fathers, Augustine has such a most substantial role in the development of the idea of fayd (emanation) that he is known as the theorist of "emanation". His debates with the opponents of common understanding of emanation are considered as the most important debates in the history of church. Catholic understanding of emanation was almost established after Augustine. Catholic Church regards the opponents of Augustine's view as heretic. The present paper takes a probing look at the process of the development of this concept from the Old Testament to the time of Augustine and also at some of his debates with his contemporaries.

Key words: fayd (emanation), Sacred Law, entitlement, Augustine, Pelagius, semi-Pelagianism.

A Comparative Study of Factors of the Formation of Mormon and Sheikhiyyah Sects in Islam and Christianity

Reza Kazemirad*


The term "Last Days" is mentioned in the teachings of all great religions of the world and one of its most important features is the appearance of the deliverer of the Last Days. The doctrine of the appearance of the Promised deliverer at the end of the world has special significance in Islam and Christianity. Due to the great importance of this issue for the followers of religions and their ever-eagerness and longing for understanding the appearance of the deliverer, there have always been some individuals who have abused this public eagerness and formed some sects in the name of the Promised Deliverer over the history. During the last two centuries, several sects were, for certain purposes, formed in Islam and Christianity based on presupposed belief about the appearance of the Promised Deliverer. The leaders of these sects have abused factors shared by these two religions. The present paper investigates the factor of the claim of receiving divine vision in the appearance of the Promised Deliverer, which has led to the formation of Sheikhiyyah sect in Islam and Mormons in Christianity.

Key words: Sheikhiyyah, Mormons, belief in the Promised deliverer, Sheikh Ehsaii, Joseph Smith.

An Inquiry into the View of Wahhabism about Intercession

Mohammad fooladi *, Mohammad Darvish**


The appearance and development of different sects along with the divine religions which are based on Sacred Law have always been a challenging issue. These sects have certain understanding and ideological principles which are different from those of religions. Wahhabism in Sunni world and Baha'ism in Shiite world are examples of these sects. Wahhabism holds that Muslims have distanced from the Islam introduced by the Holy Prophet and the Holy Quran. Therefore, they regard that returning to simple Islam of the Holy Prophet's period and following his companions is top of their agenda. This sect was set up by global arrogance during the worst historical conditions in which the Muslism nation was heavily attacked by colonialists from all fronts and was in urgent need of unity more than any time. Wahhabism has various ideological principles most of which contradict with the true principles of Islam. Based on a theoretical approach and analysis of Wahhabi works, the present paper expounds the view of Wahhabism about intercession and criticizes and evaluates this view.

Key words: Wahhabism, intercession, prayer and supplication, necessity of intercession.

Parakletos and His Global Mission in the Gospel of John

Nassir Jadidi*, Mohammad Iqbal Qazi**


Muslims believe that there are some indications in the books of the different religions about the appearance of Holy Prophet of Islam and his global mission. There remain a few indications about this issue in the Old and New Testaments although they have been grossly distorted over history. For example, the Gospel of John, which is mainly concerned with Parakletos's global mission, points to the eternity of his religion. Muslims believe that, contrary to Jesus Christ's recommendation, Parakletos has been paid no due attention through ages. Different Christian groups have always tried to distort the issue of Parakletos and his global mission, to justify it in some way or other contrary to the existing realities and to provide an interpretation different from the evidence which indicate his global mission. So, the question that arises is: what evidence do Muslims introduce to those who deny that the global mission of Holy Prophet of Islam has not been mentioned in the Gospel of John? The term "Parakletos" is mentioned in the parts 14 and 16 of Gospel of John. Muslim researchers believe that there is solid and clear evidence which confirms that this term refers to "Ahmad" that the Quran talks in confirmation about the eternity and all-comprehensiveness of his teachings.

Key words: the Holy Prophet of Islam, Parakletos, Jesus, Gospel, global mission.

* MA student of Islamic mysticism, Tehran Azad Islamic University, unit of sciences and research

** MA student of psychology, Pishwa Payam-e-Noor University kelkesheida@yahoo.com

Received: 2013-9-23 - Accepted: 2013-6-24

* P.hD student of theology, university of religions and schools       ms.ahmady@yahoo.com

Received: 2013-5-22 - Accepted: 2013-9-28

* MA of Abrahamic religions, university of religions and schools    ra.nosratian@gmail.com

Received: 2013-5-6 - Accepted: 2013-9-17

* PhD student of religions                                                                r.kazemirad1365@gmail.com

Received: 2013-6-15 - Accepted: 2013-9-25

* Assistant professor of IKI                                                                                    fooladi@iki.ac.ir

** MA of Islamic jurisprudence and law, Chaloos Azad Islamic University

Received: 2013-5-5 - Accepted: 2013-9-18

* Assistant professor of Najafabad Azad Islamic University

** MA  student of history of Islam, Najafabad Azad Islamic University rayhan1391@yahoo.com

Received: 2012-5-6 - Accepted: 2013-7-29

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