The Analysis and Criticism
of Schleiermacher's Conventional Approach to Religion

Rahim Dehqan Simkani1


The sings of conventionality in Schleiermacher's reading of religion shows that religious experience has had no results and has not only bestowed religion with no superiority but also has put it in a conventional way. Reducing religion to a personal religious experience, putting aside the sacred book as a set of divine decrees and reducing it to a book for registering religious experience, neglecting the role of intellect, divine law, religious rituals, and metaphysics as well as Schleiermacher's humanistic and spiritual approach to religion can be considered as signs of conventionality in his religious thinking. He has moved the religion from the realm of knowledge and practice to the personal world of ascetic sensations. The present paper tries to elaborate on Schleiermacher's religious approach and show the conventional elements in his approach. The research method is documentary when reffering to the views and analytical- critical when analyzing the content.

Key words: Schleiermacher, religion, conventionality, religious experience, sense.


The Criterion of Legitimacy in Religions

Yahya Noormohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Noormohammadi3


Every religion is confronted with the question that whether it has legitimacy and what are the norms and criteria for evaluating the true religion and for recognizing it from false one? Some of the criteria provided in this regard are as follows: its capacity of eschatology, moral criterion, religious experience, internal consistency, being a living religion, the duration of divine validity, and its conformity with reality. The present paper deals with these criteria. The only acceptable criterion is that a religion can be a true one if, first, all its sciences, practical injunctions, and moral decrees conform to reality and its respective objective existence' second, the claim of religions that they are the Most High God- approved path to attain perfection and happiness conforms to reality; that is, the Most High God has also approved them as a path to reach Him and as a program for life which pleases Him, and has ordained that men can achieve happiness and draw nigh to God by following these religions. Those religions whose all doctrines conform to reality, are still valid, and undistorted have legitimacy.

Key words: truth, religion, eschatology, internal consistency, religious experience, conformity with reality.


Liberal theology, an Attempt
to Restructure the Christian Faith in the Light of Modern Science

Seyyed Ali Hassani4


One of the most important theological schools is Liberal Theology which has flourished in Protestant Christianity in 19th century. In recent centuries, this school has had very widespread effects on the process of theological discussions in the West due to its particular features and achievements. Therefore, reanalyzing the roots of its formation will greatly help us understand better and more deeply the religious developments and Christian theology in recent centuries.

Using a descriptive- analytical method, the present paper investigates the most important factor of the formation of this school i.e. modern science and deals with its roots by elaborating on the factors and grounds for the formation of this science (that is, Enlightenment Age), its features, and effects on Christian theology. This paper proves that Liberal Theology was a response to modern science accompanied by putting away some doctrines by Protestant Church.

Key words: Protestant Church, Christian theology, Liberal theology, Enlightenment Age, rationalism, modern science.


Christian Religious Doctrines; Divine or Church-Based

Mohammad Hussein Taheri Akordi5


The foundation and basis of every religion is based on its religious doctrines. Christian dogmas and principles of faith in Christianity are of great importance, too. No doubt, the church and church councils have had a key role in their formation. Elaboration on the history and how Christian principles of faith have been formed shows that Christian religious doctrines have been more influenced by Church Fathers than by Bible and Jesus Christ's religious decrees. Using the authentic resources of Christianity, the present paper tried to prove that Christian dogmas are church- based and that distancing from authentic Christian teachings which really were the very Jewish beliefs was the result of church's endeavor.

Key words: principles of faith, Christianity, church, Jesus Christ, trinity, sacrifice, revelation, infallibility.


Comparative Conceptology of
"Monotheists" and "Sabians" in Quran

Mohammad Jawad Najafig6, Jawad Mohammadi7


The present paper mainly tries to comparatively study the concepts of "Monotheists" and "Sabians" in the Holy Quran and find out whether they are synonym or not. Since different religious societies and groups existed during the revelation of Quran and studying these groups and societies has some problems and complexities, the comparative study of related Quranic terms will be of great help to solve these problems. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper tries to organize the discussions on the basis of a logical and fundamental conceptology. The research findings show that "monotheist" and "monotheists" mentioned in Quranic verses do not refer to a particular group or faith; rather, it is an adjective for religion and faith generally. However, "Sabians" are particular religious groups that are included among the people of book, so they are different from "monotheists".

Key words: Quran, monotheists, Sabians, comparative conceptology.


The Contrastive Analysis of Story of Yusuf
(peace be upon him) in the Glorious Quran and Torah

Sohrab Morovvati8, Sara Saki9


The origin of all monotheistic religions is the same. This sameness is the root of many similar and identical subjects discussed in their respective holy books, such as the story of Yusuf which has been narrated in the Holy Quran and Torah. However, these two sacred books have precise and natural differences in narrating the story, in spite of their many similarities. Therefore, the present paper elaborated on their differences in detail and clearly shows the ambiguities in Torah by conducting a comprehensive review.

Using content analysis method, the present paper have carefully studied the related texts of these two divine books in order to comparatively evaluate the story of Yusuf in them, and have used Sunni and Shiite commentary books to prove the rightfulness of Quran's beautiful and enjoyable explanations, so that it would prevent personal commentary. It should be said that proving Yusuf's truthfulness, purity, and dominance over his soul is the masterpiece of the Holy Quran, which does not exist in Torah.

Key words: the story of Yusuf, Torah and Yusuf, Yusuf in Quran, the best stories.

1 PhD student of studying religion   r.dehghan88@yahoo.com
Received: 2012/10/10 - Accepted: 2013/2/28

2 PhD student of transcendent philosophy, IKI    normohamadi2531@anjomedu.ir
3 Associate professor of medical sciences university of Shahr-e- Kurd
Received: 2012/9/26 - Accepted: 2013/3/15

4 Assistant professor of IKI   seyedAli5@Gmail.com
Received: 2012/10/16 - Accepted: 2013/2/23

5 Assistant professor of IKI   Taheri54@gmail.com
Received: 2012/9/29 - Accepted: 2013/2/25

6 Faculty member of Qom University    Najafi_m_j@yahoo.com
PhD student of Quranic Sciences and traditions (Bu Ali University of Hamadan)
jvdmohamadi@gmail.com              Received: 2012/10/30 - Accepted: 2013/2/25

8 . Associate professor of Ilam University      sohrab_morovati@yahoo.com
MA student of Quranic Sciences and tradition, Ilam University sarasaki87@yahoo.com
Received: 2012/10/4 - Accepted: 2013/2/28

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