A Comparative Study of the Unity of Existence from the Viewpoint of Vedanta School in Hindu Mysticism and Sadra School in Islamic Mysticism

Rezvaneh Najafi Savad Rudbari / Assistant Professor, the department of Islamic Education, Sistan and Baluchestan University    r.najafi1342@gmail.com
Received: 2020/06/07 - Accepted: 2020/12/06

The unity of existence is one of the complex issues raised in mystical schools. Showing the depth of attention of scholars in the Islamic world, the present paper is a comparative study of the views of the Hindu school and Islamic mysticism. In Hinduism and Islam, three interpretations of the unity of existence have been offered: 1. The universe is a single personal existence and all objects in the universe are considered as its components. Some Islamic theologians have attributed this view to mystics. 2. The universe is a single personal existence, and multiplicities and other objects are nothing more than illusions and mirages. This view is attributed to some Sufis. In both of these interpretations of the unity of existence, some words of the Hindu school are used. 3. The universe is an infinite and endless single personal existence that leaves no room for others, and pluralities are the manifestations of that single personal existence. In this view, the attribution of pluralities to existence is permissible. In the relationship between existence and pluralities, the single personal existence plays the role of a stational conditional mood, and the difference between pluralities, i.e. one plurality is superior to the other, is in analogical gradation. This interpretation is the view held by most Muslim mystics and is also derived from the words of Hindu mysticism.
Keywords: unity of existence, conditional mood, station, Vedanta.

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