ايران

The Origin of Sacred Trees; A Case Study of Sacred Trees in Iran

* ولي‌الله نصيري / استاديار گروه اديان و عرفان تطبيقي، دانشگاه شهركرد    nasiri@sku.ac.ir
خليل حكيمي‌فر / استاديار گروه اديان و عرفان تطبيقي، دانشگاه سيستان و بلوچستان
دريافت: 07/03/1399 ـ پذيرش: 12/07/1399
چکیده
براساس پژوهش‌های صورت‌گرفته، اعتقاد به درختان مقدس کمابیش در سراسر جهان و با دلایل متعدد وجود دارد. در فرهنگ عامۀ ایرانیان نيز برای برخی از گیاهان و درختان نیرو و خواص و تقدس خاصی قائل بوده‌اند. در ایران کمتر محلي است که نمونه‌ای از درختان مورد احترام را نداشته باشد. این درختان گوناگون، در باور عامۀ مردم ویژگی‌هایي کم‌وبیش یکسان دارند؛ از جمله اینکه بریدن آنها و حتی شکستن شاخه‌هايشان سبب نابودی یا زیان‌های مهم برای شکننده دربرخواهد داشت. این درختان برآورندۀ حاجات نیازمندان بوده، در دفع برخی امراض و چشم زخم مؤثرند. نتايج نشان مي‌دهند كه به‌طورکلی، اعتقاد به درختان مقدس در اديان خداباور و غیر خداباور متفاوت است. در میان مسلمانان، تقدس درختان خاص، بیشتر با تجلی خدا و جایگاه ارواح پاک اولیا و عرفا يا با مقبره‌هاي آنان یا با اعمال و وقايع زندگي پيامبران و رهبران مذهبي مرتبط است؛ اما در ادیان خداناباور، تقدس درختان به جایگاه ارواح و الهه‌ها، و در عمل به سطح جادوگری و طلسم تقلیل یافته است. جُستار پیش‌رو با استفاده از منابع مکتوب و با شیوة توصیفی تحلیلی صورت گرفته است.
كليدواژه‌ها: درخت، مقدس، ايران، اساطير.

متن مقاله: 

* Valiullah Nasiri / Assistant Professor, Department of Religion and Comparative Mysticism, Shahrekord University    nasiri@sku.ac.ir
Khalil Hakimifar / Assistant Professor, Department of Religion and Comparative Mysticism, Sistan and Baluchestan University
Received: 2020/05/27 - Accepted: 2020/10/03

Abstract
Based on the research, belief in sacred trees can be found in various forms around the world and for a variety of reasons. In Iranian popular culture, some plants and trees have been given special power, properties and sanctity. There are few places in Iran that do not have a sample of respected trees. These different trees are generally believed to have relatively similar characteristics, including, prohibition of cutting, prohibition of breaking their branches that may cause destruction or serious damage to one who does so. According to popular belief, these trees meet the needs of the needy and are effective in repelling some diseases and evil eye. The results show that, in general, belief in sacred trees is different in theistic and atheistic religions. Among Muslims, the sanctity of certain trees is mostly related to the manifestation of God and the position of the pure souls of saints and mystics, or to their tombs, or to the deeds and life events of prophets and religious leaders, but in atheistic religions, the sanctity of trees is reduced to the status of spirits and goddesses and in practice to the level of magic and spell. Using written sources and descriptive-analytical method, this research has been done.

Keywords: tree, sacred, Iran, mythology

شماره مجله: 
46
شماره صفحه: 
35

A Comparative Study of the Great Flood and the Character and Function of the First Saviors in Iran and Mesopotamia

Hamid Kavyani Pooya / Assistant Professor, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

kavyani@uk.ac.ir

Tayebeh Khajeh / MA Student of Iranology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

Received: 2019/01/13 - Accepted: 2019/05/18

 

Abstract

Given the fact that myths are not unrealistic and illusory, and are rooted in reality, the myth is said to be a response to human’s inability to cope with his frustrations; a response to his weaknesses in achieving his aspirations and his fears of unexpected accidents. Meanwhile, one of the important events in the ancient human societies was horrible natural events that sometimes led to the destruction of the foundation of life, and regardless of how it was faced, the reason and cause of these unfortunate events was an important issue that produced different reactions in different civilizations and was influenced by different factors. Therefore, given the existence of a great flood narration in some myths of ancient nations, this research seeks to explain the similarities and differences among the narratives and beliefs about the Flood and the formation and development a life-saving myth in the civilizations of Iran and Mesopotamia by investigating the narrations about the flood and nature of the saviors of human life. Therefore, using an analytical approach, important historical sources and mythological narratives were collected and reviewed. The results suggest that the issue of rescuing and delivering human beings from disasters and agony has always been considered by some ancient civilizations and cultures like Iran and Mesopotamia, and narrations about the great flood have many similarities. However, due to the fact that these civilizations have somehow dealt with these narrations based on their cultural and biological conditions, there are, in some cases, notable differences in these narratives (in the reason behind the incident and the attribute of the saviors).

Keywords: flood, saviors, Iran, Mesopotamia.


 

شماره مجله: 
38
شماره صفحه: 
95
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